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Grizzly bears, black bears, wolves, coyotes, cougars/ mountain lions,bobcats, wolverines, lynx, foxes, fishers and martens are the suite of carnivores that originally inhabited North America after the Pleistocene extinctions. This site invites research, commentary, point/counterpoint on that suite of native animals (predator and prey) that inhabited The Americas circa 1500-at the initial point of European exploration and subsequent colonization. Landscape ecology, journal accounts of explorers and frontiersmen, genetic evaluations of museum animals, peer reviewed 20th and 21st century research on various aspects of our "Wild America" as well as subjective commentary from expert and layman alike. All of the above being revealed and discussed with the underlying goal of one day seeing our Continent rewilded.....Where big enough swaths of open space exist with connective corridors to other large forest, meadow, mountain, valley, prairie, desert and chaparral wildlands.....Thereby enabling all of our historic fauna, including man, to live in a sustainable and healthy environment. - Blogger Rick

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Monday, January 30, 2012

The city of Ktchener, Ontario Canada has one of the most enlightened human/coyote coexistance policies in North America...............They are lockstep with the Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources in their outlook on living with coyotes and wolves.........As Kitchener Natural areas coordinator Josh Shea puts it: "Coyotes are an important part of the urban ecosystem."........."coyotes check the rising raccoon population, which can carry deadly round worm parasites............Art Timmerman, Mgmt biologist for the Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources states: “With a bounty(to seek to rid an area of coyotes), you’re sort of persecuting the animal for doing things coyotes do".....“Not all coyotes are bad coyotes.”..........As our friends at Project Coyote urge,,,,,,,, Never feed a coyote or any other wildlife,,,,Keep pets in doors overnight. Cats and small dogs are the same size as a coyote's regular prey..... Don't leave pet food outside overnight or pile garbage and or compost meat near the home. The smell attracts coyotes and clutter gives them cover to slink around your property,,,,,,Coyotes are territorial. They will often attack other animals, including dogs, that enter their territory,,,,Always keep a dog on a leash, even in wooded areas...............The bottom line is that coyotes and wolves should be a part of Eastern North America's ecosytem,,,,they contribute to a rich biodiversity...... The presence of coyotes and wolves is a good indication that our natural spaces are healthy with a wide array of creatures of all types

By Ashley Csanad;
How to learn to stop worrying and love the coyote
KITCHENER — A yellow-eyed and long-toothed creature lurks in forests throughout Waterloo Region.But the City of Kitchener and wildlife experts say that while urban coyotes might be wily, they aren’t to be feared.

Coyotes have been making headlines in the region and across the province since the start of the year. A dog was eaten by coyotes in Cambridge in early January; a few weeks later, an eight-year-old girl was attacked in suburban Oakville. And in November, paw prints ran through a playground Meinzinger Park in central Kitchener.

Coyotes are more likely to be afraid of people than attack, said Josh Shea, natural areas co-ordinator for the city. So, after receiving a few calls from concerned residents about coyotes in the city, Shea took the chance to reach out to the community.  “We’re trying to educate people to live with these animals in the city,” he said, explaining that residents also tend to see more coyotes in winter, when some seek new territory and there aren’t any leaves on the trees to camouflage them.

They’re also an important part of the urban ecosystem. “By having those predators in place it helps other populations in check,” said SheaFor example, coyotes check the rising raccoon population, which can carry deadly round worm parasites.

“These animals have been here a long time . . . It’s important that we take the appropriate steps to learn to live with them,” said Gary Boes, an animal cruelty inspector with the Kitchener-Waterloo Humane Society. “Many of these problems we encounter out there, we’ve created ourselves.”
Urban sprawl, bird feeders and leaving garbage outside can all increase the chances of a coyote encounter. The biggest danger is feeding coyotes, which removes their natural fear of humans.
Boes said coyote attacks are much less frequently than current coverage would suggest, and most of the time domestic pets are attacked, it could have been prevented. Cats shouldn’t be let out overnight and, as municipal bylaws require, dogs should be leashed even in forested areas.

However, the Ministry of Natural Resources states that the coyote population is increasing. And conflicts do occur.

So how can municipalities and individuals deal with “problem coyotes” that develop a taste for livestock or pets or become too comfortable around humans? Property owners have the right to humanely trap or kill problem wildlife on their property. Municipalities must obtain Ministry of Natural Resources approval to initiate a cull or even trap a few problem animals.

“Culls are valuable for over population but culls do not necessarily deal with the problem animals,” said Robin Horwath, general manager of the Ontario Fur Managers Federation, the body that licenses all hunters and trappers in the province but also acts as a liaison between the government and trappers.

Horwath said even an open cull would be limited by municipal bylaws that don’t allow hunting within city limits. So the coyotes that would be hunted are often the country cousins to the urban dwellers that are causing all the fuss.

coyowolf(eastern coyote)

“With a bounty you’re sort of persecuting the animal for doing things coyotes do,” said Art Timmerman, a management biologist with the Ministry of Natural Resources. “Not all coyotes are bad coyotes.”

Your friendly neighbourhood coyote
The City of Kitchener released a tip sheet Monday to help regional residents get along with their neighbourhood coyotes.

• Never feed a coyote or any other wildlife
• Keep pets in doors overnight. Cats and small dogs are the same size as a coyote's regular prey.
• Don't leave pet food outside overnight or pile garbage and or compost meat near the home. The smell attracts coyotes and clutter gives them cover to slink around your property.
• Coyotes are territorial. They will often attack other animals, including dogs, that enter their territory.
• Always keep a dog on a leash, even in wooded areas


Tips for co-existing with urban coyotes

January 30, 2012
KITCHENER – With coyotes becoming a common sight in urban areas across southern Ontario, largely due to the expansion of neighbourhoods and newer subdivisions into former farmland and green space that were once coyote habitat. In addition, coyote population levels across the province of Ontario are noted to be at a high level.
The City of Kitchener would like to offer the following tips on co-existing with these wild animals:
Never feed a coyote or any other wild animal including raccoons, deer or rabbits. When animals like the coyote are fed, they not only lose their natural fear of humans but often lose their ability or interest to hunt and locate natural food sources that are an important part of their diet and keep them healthy. In the case where a “problem” animal needs to be removed, it is usually because they have become accustomed to being fed by people and are causing a problem. It only takes one person to cause a problem for an entire neighbourhood.

Secure your garbage and compost in durable plastic containers with locking lids. Never compost meat or other animal products in outdoor composters. It is also important to make sure that pet food is not left outdoors, as this can also attract animals to your yard.

Always keep your dog on a leash and under control. Domestic dogs are a threat to a coyote, and some smaller dogs and cats are the same size as a coyote’s regular food and they could attempt to catch and eat pets.

While the city does not post signs to warn people about the presence of coyotes, signage is posted to remind pet owners of the city bylaw prohibiting pet owners from allowing their pets to run off-leash. Keeping pets on a leash - or indoors - will help keep them safe. Coyotes view free-running pets as threats and they will protect their territory by attacking the other animal.
“Coyotes have adapted very well to life in the city, can live in close proximity with their human neighbours and are a beneficial and important animal in an urban environment because they help control small animal populations,” said Josh Shea, natural areas co-ordinator for the city. “Generally, coyotes don’t pose a threat to human safety, but understanding and respecting them can avoid problems.”

Coywolves(Eastern Coyotes)

If you do encounter a coyote, remain calm and slowly back away while giving the animal enough space to escape. If necessary, you should leave the area. Concerns about abnormal coyote behaviour should be reported to the city by calling 519-741-2345

“Coyotes are curious animals that are very aware of their surroundings and the activities happening in their territories.” said Shea, “There is no reason to be afraid if you observe a coyote. From an ecological perspective, having these animals live in and near urban areas is a positive, as they are a natural part of a healthy environment.”

Urban coyote facts

The dog-like animal is a common, although rarely encountered, animal in Kitchener, and is often seen and heard in areas that in areas near farmland, green spaces and natural areas.

The coyote is a highly adaptable and intelligent animal that feeds on a wide variety of food items including fruits, vegetables, mice, squirrels, rabbits, raccoons, geese, ducks, deer, beaver and domestic pets, including cats and dogs.

Coyotes are mainly active at dusk, dawn and during the night but can be seen at anytime of the day, especially during the spring season when they are busy catching food to feed their young. During the winter season, coyotes are also observed more frequently as young animals begin to move around looking for unoccupied territories and the adults are preparing for the breeding season. Also due to the fact that there are no leaves on the trees, it is easier to notice or see these animals.

Coyotes live in small groups that include the adult parents and the young, which are born in April or May. Coyotes can often be heard barking, yipping and yelping during the spring and early summer season when they are raising and teaching their young how to locate and catch food.

Coyotes are territorial and will protect their territory against other coyotes. They will also defend their territory against other species, including cats and dogs. This behaviour is quite natural and is not a sign of the coyote acting overly aggressive.

Like other species of mammals, coyotes can carry rabies. With strict rabies control and prevention programs in Ontario, the likelihood of encountering a coyote with rabies is extremely rare.

The Kitchener Natural Areas Program is a great community resource for more information on coyotes and other local wildlife. Regular environmental events and hikes are planned at local natural areas, providing residents with first-hand education on these topics. For more information, please visit

Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources
Living with Coyotes

Coyotes migrated to Ontario from the west more than 100 years ago. Since then, the coyote has adapted well to both rural and urban environments. It performs an important role as a predator in southern Ontario, helping to control the populations of rabbits, rats and mice.

In the country, coyotes are commonly found in open, agricultural land that includes woodlots and areas covered with brush. In cities, coyotes prefer natural green space, such as parks, ravines and stream banks.

Conflicts with coyotes

Coyotes can raise concerns when they
  • feed on garbage, compost, fruit or vegetable gardens
  • prey on livestock or pets
  • come too close to people.
Landowners can take action to manage wildlife on their property.

Conflicts can often be prevented by making changes on your property. For example, removing sources of food by protecting pets and livestock, fencing gardens, and securing garbage and compost, will help encourage coyotes to go elsewhere. Most importantly, never feed coyotes or other wildlife.

For detailed information, refer to these links:

Lethal action is a last resort


Living with Wolves
Wolves are found throughout northern Ontario.

They are an important part of our ecosystem and contribute to Ontario's rich biodiversity. The presence of wolves is a good indication that our natural spaces are healthy.

Wolves are shy and generally avoid humans. However, wolves are social animals: they not only hunt in packs or groups but live most of their lives with other wolves. Wolf packs will reuse den sites over multiple years.

The pack bond is strongest during winter, when the wolves travel and hunt together. In summer, when the pups are young, the adults seldom go on long forays. They may hunt together occasionally after meeting at the den or home site where the pups are being cared for.

Natural prey for wolves includes moose, deer, elk, caribou and beaver.

Wolves are territorial. Each pack occupies an area that it will defend against intruders. Sizes of territories vary greatly depending on the kind and abundance of prey available. When neighbouring packs trespass into each other's territories, fights often ensue that frequently result in the death of pack members.

Conflicts happen

Wolves sometimes find their way to residential areas, where they may come into conflict with pets, disturb garbage, and cause concern for residents.

Please keep in mind…

Wild animals have the same basic needs as humans – food, water and shelter. Sometimes, humans and wild creatures come into conflict when animals are trying to meet their basic needs. Often, conflicts can be prevented if we're willing to make small changes to how we think and act.

People and wild animals live side by side in Ontario. We all share responsibility for preventing and handling human-wildlife conflicts. If you must take action against wildlife, please consider all your options and follow all relevant laws and regulations.

Conflicts with Wolves

How Can I Prevent Conflicts?

Limit food sources
  • Never feed wolves.
  • Keep pet food indoors.
  • Secure garbage in durable plastic containers with locking lids.
  • Store garbage indoors until collection day.
  • Keep compost in containers that keep wolves out while allowing for ventilation.
  • Avoid adding dog or cat waste, or meat, milk or eggs to composters.
  • Do not feed wildlife such as deer to prevent attracting wolves to your property; remove deer food and salt blocks.

Make your property unwelcoming
  • Prune bushes and clean up brush piles.
  • Eliminate small mammal habitat (rock piles, wood or debris).
  • Use flashing lights, motion sensors and noise makers to deter wolves.
  • Fence your property to make it less accessible with a two-metre high fence that extends at least 20 centimetres underground.
  • Install a roller system that can be attached to the top of your fence preventing animals from gaining the foothold they need to pull themselves up and over the top of a fence.
  • Close off crawl spaces under porches, decks and sheds.

How Can I Handle a Conflict?

If you encounter a wolf
  • Never approach or touch a wolf.
  • Never attempt to "tame" a wolf.
  • Do not turn your back on, or run from, a wolf. Back away from the animal while remaining calm.
  • Stand tall, wave your hands and make lots of noise.
  • Use whistles and personal alarm devices to frighten an approaching or threatening animal.
  • Carry a flashlight at night to scare off wolves.
  • Do not let dogs chase a wolf. Chasing wolves could result in injuries to your pet.
Lethal action is a last resort
  • A landowner may humanely kill or trap wolves that are damaging or about to damage their property. Firearm regulations and bylaws must be followed.
  • Landowners in central and northern Ontario must report wolves killed in protection of property to their local Ministry of Natural Resources office.
  • You may also hire an agent to act on your behalf.
 For more information and assistance…

To locate a local wildlife control agent…
• Speak with your neighbours, family and friends.
• Look for "animal control" in your phone book or online.

To locate a licensed trapper...
• Contact the Ontario Fur Managers Federation at (705) 254-3338 begin_of_the_skype_highlighting (705) 254-3338 end_of_the_skype_highlighting or by e-mail at

For information on wolves…
• Call your local Ministry of Natural Resources office or the Natural Resources Information Centre at 1-800-667-1940

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