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Grizzly bears, black bears, wolves, coyotes, cougars/ mountain lions,bobcats, wolverines, lynx, foxes, fishers and martens are the suite of carnivores that originally inhabited North America after the Pleistocene extinctions. This site invites research, commentary, point/counterpoint on that suite of native animals (predator and prey) that inhabited The Americas circa 1500-at the initial point of European exploration and subsequent colonization. Landscape ecology, journal accounts of explorers and frontiersmen, genetic evaluations of museum animals, peer reviewed 20th and 21st century research on various aspects of our "Wild America" as well as subjective commentary from expert and layman alike. All of the above being revealed and discussed with the underlying goal of one day seeing our Continent rewilded.....Where big enough swaths of open space exist with connective corridors to other large forest, meadow, mountain, valley, prairie, desert and chaparral wildlands.....Thereby enabling all of our historic fauna, including man, to live in a sustainable and healthy environment. - Blogger Rick

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Saturday, April 20, 2013

Over 1 million White Tail Deer inhabit New York State with hunters killing off somewhere between 20 and 24% of the population every Fall....................With New York State having roughly 40,000 square miles of Land(less watercourses and cities), there are approximately 25 deer per square mile----far over the pre colonial 6 to 12 deer per square mile that easily supported Wolves, Pumas, Black Bears, Bob cats and Lynx,,,,,,as well as the Indian tribes that inhabited the whole of the State...................25 Deer per square mile(as many of you know) retards forest regeneration and severely limits optimum plant(and ultimately) animal and bird life in the Empire State---------------Wolves and Pumas are critical components to get back into New York woodlands!!!!!!!!!





Associated Press

ALBANY, N.Y. — New York officials say
 hunters killed about 243,000 deer during
 the 2012-13 hunting seasons, roughly
 6 percent more than a year earlier.
Department of Environmental Conservation Commissioner Joe Martens says the state
 has been taking steps to encourage hunting
 as the deer population continues to grow.
The breakdown
of the past
season's take
 was 124,000
adult females and fawns and 119,000 adult
In the Northern Zone, and estimated 19,400
 bucks and 11,400 antlerless deer were taken, compared to 15,900 and 10,900 respectively
 a year earlier. There were 98,570 bucks and 110,900 antlerless deer taken in the Southern
 Zone, excluding Long Island.

Management Plan
for White-tailed Deer
in New York State
2012-2016-Dept. of Envriornmental

When European settlers
 arrived in New York,
white-tailed deer were
apparently present
throughout the state but
densities variedgreatly
by region. Relatively high
 densities of deer lived
in open areas maintained
 by Native Americans
primarily through periodic

 However, the majority of New York was covered in mature forest, suitable only for relatively low densities of
deer. Nonetheless, the 9-12 deer
 per square mile supported Puma, Wolf, Black Bear, Bobcat and lynx.  In addition,  throughout the state, deer were an
important source of meat,
 bone and hide for
both Native Americans and

Historically in NY, Wolves feasted on Deer

As forests were cleared for agriculture, habitat conditions
improved for deer, and their
 populations initially
increased. Though periodic laws
were enacted to afford some
protection to deer (the earliest
occurring in 1705), by the mid-1800s,
excessive deer harvest by settlers and
extensive habitat loss to agriculture
caused deer populations to decline

 By the 1880s, less than 25% of New York State was forested, and deer were absent in most of New
York except the central Adirondack
Mountains (Severinghaus and Brown

Following extirpation of deer
most of the state, the Legislature
formed the New York State
Game and Forest Commission
 in 1895, and deer populations
received better protection,
predominantly by closed
and very limited antlerless

Pumas are excellent deer

Deer recolonized
 New York via
migration from remnant
populations in the
Vermont, Massachusetts,
Pennsylvania and a
 small herd
relocated from the
Adirondacks to
the southern Catskills

The deer population
 increased in
distribution and density
the 20th Century,
 re-inhabiting all
areas of the state and
 reaching a population peak, estimated at over 1 million deer, between 2000 and

As deer populations grew
in number and distribution, hunting seasons resumed incrementally until
nearly all of the state
 was open to deer hunting. Abandonment of farms on marginal lands led to more
early successional and young
forest cover and better deer habitat throughout the state. By the 1940s,
locally abundant deer
 populations resulted in increased levels of agricultural damage and overbrowsing
of winter range in some


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