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Grizzly bears, black bears, wolves, coyotes, cougars/ mountain lions,bobcats, wolverines, lynx, foxes, fishers and martens are the suite of carnivores that originally inhabited North America after the Pleistocene extinctions. This site invites research, commentary, point/counterpoint on that suite of native animals (predator and prey) that inhabited The Americas circa 1500-at the initial point of European exploration and subsequent colonization. Landscape ecology, journal accounts of explorers and frontiersmen, genetic evaluations of museum animals, peer reviewed 20th and 21st century research on various aspects of our "Wild America" as well as subjective commentary from expert and layman alike. All of the above being revealed and discussed with the underlying goal of one day seeing our Continent rewilded.....Where big enough swaths of open space exist with connective corridors to other large forest, meadow, mountain, valley, prairie, desert and chaparral wildlands.....Thereby enabling all of our historic fauna, including man, to live in a sustainable and healthy environment. - Blogger Rick

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Wednesday, August 21, 2013

ONTARIO(CANADA) MINISTRY OF NATURAL RESOURCES is encouraging all hunters who kill a Black Bear to submit two of the Bruins premolar teeth so they can be analyzed to determine the bears age, the # of cubs and females within a population..................If Bear populations within a given locale have females making up less than 20% of their numbers, sustainability of that bear population becomes problematic

MNR seeks 




The Ministry of Natural Resources is calling on resident
hunters in the Northeast Region to help in its efforts to
monitor and manage the black bear population.
The ministry is asking successful hunters to submit the
 two premolar teeth from their harvested black bears
 for analysis this fall.
Spokeswoman Karen Passmore said the ministry
 has been collecting premolars to help determine
 the age structure of the province's bear population
 for about three decades.
But in recent years, she said only 7% of successful
 resident bear hunters in the region have been
 submitting premolars to the MNR, compared
 to 65% of non-resident

Passmore said it should be relatively easy for hunters
 to submit the teeth since they must also complete a
mandatory questionnaire.
In return, black bear hunters will be mailed an Ontario
 Bear Hunter Crest, along with information about the
 age of the bear harvested, usually within six months.
Passmore said a bear's premolars gain a new
 cementum layer each winter and that age is
 determined by looking at the number of layers
 using dye and a microscope, similar to the age
rings on a tree.
She said the data can be used to help determine
the number of cubs within the population, as well
 as adult females. Passmore said a population
 consisting of less than 20% adult females is
 considered unsustainable.
The first premolar is a small, single-rooted
 peg-like tooth located just behind the canines.
 To remove the tooth, hunters should push the
 blade of a knife down along all sides between
the tooth and the gums. They should then gently
 loosen the tooth by rocking it back and forth
using the canine for leverage, removing the
 tooth by using pliers. Care should be taken to
 ensure the root of the tooth is not broken. Teeth
 should be extracted shortly after the animal has
 been harvested, while the jaw is still pliable.
Hunters should place the teeth in an envelope
 along with their name, address, Outdoors Card
 number, the date the bear was harvested, sex of
 the bear and the wildlife management unit in
which the harvest took place.
The teeth an information can be mailed to:
 Ministry of Natural Resources, Wildlife Surveys
 Officer, 1350 High Falls Road; Bracebridge,
ON, P1L 1W9.
Further detail can also be found on page 76
 and of the 2012 Hunting Regulations Summary,
 found online at\hunting.
Black bear season in the area runs from Aug.
 15 until Nov. 30 depending on the wildlife
 management unit. The season runs from
Aug. 15 to Oct. 31 in units 41 and 42, and
from Sept. 1 to Nov. 30 in unit 48.

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