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Grizzly bears, black bears, wolves, coyotes, cougars/ mountain lions,bobcats, wolverines, lynx, foxes, fishers and martens are the suite of carnivores that originally inhabited North America after the Pleistocene extinctions. This site invites research, commentary, point/counterpoint on that suite of native animals (predator and prey) that inhabited The Americas circa 1500-at the initial point of European exploration and subsequent colonization. Landscape ecology, journal accounts of explorers and frontiersmen, genetic evaluations of museum animals, peer reviewed 20th and 21st century research on various aspects of our "Wild America" as well as subjective commentary from expert and layman alike. All of the above being revealed and discussed with the underlying goal of one day seeing our Continent rewilded.....Where big enough swaths of open space exist with connective corridors to other large forest, meadow, mountain, valley, prairie, desert and chaparral wildlands.....Thereby enabling all of our historic fauna, including man, to live in a sustainable and healthy environment. - Blogger Rick

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Tuesday, March 11, 2014

Biologist John Laundre responding to the NY TIMES op ed piece entitled IS THE WOLF A REAL AMERICAN HERO?---This Editorial severely questioned whether top carnivores like the wolf have a top down impact on herbivores and subsequently the bioligical diversity of the plant community that both the Wolves and the hoofed browsers occupy----Laundre's response as follows: "The study cited in this op-ed was flawed and we (Ripple, et al. have a comment appearing in an upcoming Ecology pointing it out".............. "Also, my contention is that: how can a study done over 10 years AFTER the wolves have come back, document much when all of the adjustments have already been done?".......... "Of course they will not see big differences because those big differences have already occurred"............. "What they are seeing is the results of those adjustments, a system already altered".......... "Our data clearly showed that elk underwent a major shift in habitat use within 3 years after the wolves arrived"................... "What they are studying are those fine tuned adjustments that major shift will not be as obvious"......... "What it really is is mass action ecologists striking back at the behavioral ecologists"............. "They can not conceive that behavior will have a major ecological impact",,,,,,,,,"it does not fit their mathematical models"............ "Also, young researchers trying to make a name for themselves has a lot to do with it"........... "I guess that is how science works, pretty much how human nature does!"

by JW LaundrĂ© - ‎2010 - 
Abstract: “Predation risk” and “fear” are concepts well established in animal behavior literature. ..... bison: reestablishing the “landscape of fear” in Yellowstone.

wolves altering the feeding habits of elk

One of the Studies that John Laundre feels is flawed as it relates to the top down impacts of Wolves on herbivores and the plant community both predator and prey occupy

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