Evolutionary biology RAD sequencing and genomic simulations resolve hybrid origins within North American Canis
L. Y. Rutledge1 , S. Devillard2 , J. Q. Boone3 , P. A. Hohenlohe4 and B. N. White1 1 Biology Department, Trent University, 2140 East Bank Drive, Peterborough, Ontario, K9J 7B8 Canada 2 Universite´ de Lyon, F-69000, Lyon; Universite´ Lyon 1; CNRS, UMR5558, Laboratoire de Biome´trie et Biologie Evolutive, F-69622, Villeurbanne, France 3 Floragenex Inc., Eugene, OR 97405, USA 4 Department of Biological Sciences, University of Idaho, Moscow, ID 83844, USA
Top predators are disappearing worldwide, significantly changing ecosystems that depend on top-down regulation. Conflict with humans remains the primary roadblock for large carnivore conservation, but for the eastern wolf (Canis lycaon), disagreement over its evolutionary origins presents a significant barrier to conservation in Canada and has impeded protection for grey wolves (Canis lupus) in the USA.
WHOLE GENOME SEQUENCE ANALYSIS SHOWS THAT
TWO ENDEMIC SPECIES OF NORTH AMERICAN WOLF
ARE ADMIXTURES OF THE COYOTE AND GRAY WOLF
Bridgette vonholdt, James Cahill, Zhenxin Fan, Llan Gronau,
Jacqueline Robinson, John Pollinger, Beth Shapiro, Jeff Wall, Robert Wayne
Gray Wolf(found West and north of the
Great Lakes Wolf(admix of Gray and
Here, we use 127 235 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identified from restriction-site associated DNA sequencing (RAD-seq) of wolves and coyotes, in combination with genomic simulations, to test hypotheses of hybrid origins of Canis types in eastern North America.
Eastern Wolf(same as Red Wolf)
(found in the Eastern USA and
Red Wolf(same as eastern wolf)(only 50
in the wild,in North Carolina Barrier
A principal components analysis revealed no evidence to support eastern wolves, or any other Canis type, as the product of grey wolf western coyote hybridization. In contrast, simulations that included eastern wolves as a distinct taxon clarified the hybrid origins of Great Lakes boreal wolves and eastern coyotes.
Western Coyote(historically found west of
Eastern Coyote(western coyote/eastern
Our results support the eastern wolf as a distinct genomic cluster in North America and help resolve hybrid origins of Great Lakes wolves and eastern coyotes. The data provide timely information that will shed new light on the debate over wolf conservation in eastern North America.