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Grizzly bears, black bears, wolves, coyotes, cougars/ mountain lions,bobcats, wolverines, lynx, foxes, fishers and martens are the suite of carnivores that originally inhabited North America after the Pleistocene extinctions. This site invites research, commentary, point/counterpoint on that suite of native animals (predator and prey) that inhabited The Americas circa 1500-at the initial point of European exploration and subsequent colonization. Landscape ecology, journal accounts of explorers and frontiersmen, genetic evaluations of museum animals, peer reviewed 20th and 21st century research on various aspects of our "Wild America" as well as subjective commentary from expert and layman alike. All of the above being revealed and discussed with the underlying goal of one day seeing our Continent rewilded.....Where big enough swaths of open space exist with connective corridors to other large forest, meadow, mountain, valley, prairie, desert and chaparral wildlands.....Thereby enabling all of our historic fauna, including man, to live in a sustainable and healthy environment. - Blogger Rick

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Monday, July 10, 2017

Thanks to our friend Kristin Combs at WYOMING UNTRAPPED for sharing this recent PANTHERA//WYOMING UNTRAPPED research article entitled: BOBCAT ECONOMIC VALUE STUDY............Biologists and Land Managers have long argued that biodiversity of species, wildlands and wetlands have one-of-a-kind value to the health of our Nation and Planet via clean air, water and medicines(half of our medicines are derived from nature).......Crystalizing this premise is the research cited in this article portraying every Bobcat in Yellowstone National Park as being worth 1000 times more valuable to humanity alive rather than dead based on the Ecotourism $$ that come into Yellowstone annually..............As articulated so well via biologist John Laundre on this blog time and again, hunters and trappers represent less than 10% of the adult American population.............Certainly they should continue to have a voice in how we manage our wildlife as should all the rest of us whether we be hikers, birders, photographers or just folks who appreciate things wild and free..............A shame(although seemingly unavoidable) it is that we have to justify the value of living creatures in monetary terms to make a case their continued existence when so many of us have been schooled on how valauble all life is.......As written in the Old Testament ECCLESIASTES 3:19-------"That which happens to men also happens to animals; and one thing happens to them both: as one dies so dies the other, for they share the same breath; and man has no pre-eminence above an animal: for all is vanity".............And Pope Francis writes so eloquently in his recent Environmental Encyclical Letter------ “Praise be to you, my Lord, through our Sister, Mother Earth, who sustains and governs us, and who produces various fruit with coloured flowers and herbs”....... "This sister now cries out to us because of the harm we have inflicted on her by our irresponsible use and abuse of the goods with which God has endowed her"............. "We have come to see ourselves as her lords and masters, entitled to plunder her at will"......... "The violence present in our hearts, wounded by sin, is also reflected in the symptoms of sickness evident in the soil, in the water, in the air and in all forms of life"........ "This is why the earth herself, burdened and laid waste, is among the most abandoned and maltreated of our poor; she “groans in travail” (Rom 8:22)"............ "We have forgotten that we ourselves are dust of the earth (cf. Gen 2:7); our very bodies are made up of her elements, we breathe her air and we receive life and refreshment from her waters"



Authors-L. Mark Elbroch(Panthera) and Lisa Robertson /Kristin CombsWyoming Untrapped
April 27, 2017 Biodiversity Conservation Magazine

Summary of Study

During the winter of 2016, a bobcat was frequently seen near the Madison River in Yellowstone. This single bobcat brought in tourists, photographers, and wildlife watchers from nationwide which resulted in an economic benefit to the local economy around Yellowstone National Park.

 In collaboration with Panthera, a cat research and conservation organization, our study aimed to quantify this value of one bobcat which was enjoyed by so many and is alive and well today to continue to bring visitors to see this fascinating species.

In Wyoming, bobcats can be trapped in unlimited numbers from November 15 to March 1 of each year. Bobcats that are sold overseas or are exported out of the state must be tagged by the Wyoming Game and Fish Department (WGFD) as required by the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) which aims to reduce or eliminate the number of illegal endangered species being bought and sold worldwide. This registration of bobcats is the only method the WGFD uses to monitor bobcat populations in the state. For a single $44 license, a trapper can trap as many bobcats as possible and then sell the pelts for personal profit. We propose that this species is worth much more alive than dead and should be managed with quotas and limits.

For Immediate Release
July 9, 2017
Valuing Bobcats:
They are worth a 1000 times more alive than dead
Panthera – Susie W. Sheppard (347) 446-9904;
Wyoming Untrapped – Lisa Robertson, (307) 690-9528;
Wyoming Untrapped – Kristin Combs (307) 201-2422;
Jackson, Wyoming – Authors of a new article in Biodiversity and Conservation, an internationally-recognized science journal, calculated the value of a free-roaming bobcat in Yellowstone National Park to the economy versus its value as a trapped and hunted animal. The article is a unique collaboration between researchers from Panthera, the global wild cat conservation organization, and advocates with Wyoming Untrapped.

Status of hunting and trapping Bobcats by State

The authors estimated a conservative, non-consumptive economic value of $308,105 for this single bobcat in Yellowstone National Park in northwest Wyoming for one winter season, a figure nearly 1000 times greater than the average exploitative value of $315.17 per bobcat trapped or hunted in Wyoming that same year ($130.53 per bobcat harvested in revenue earned by the state of Wyoming in trapping license sales + $184.64 per pelt sold by successful trappers and hunters). Also consider, that this same bobcat could generate the same figure again the following year, should it survive the summer season in Yellowstone. Over its life, this one bobcat could generate well over $1 million in economic activity, shared across countless people involved in travel and tourism

Photographers watching Bobcat get a "snake dinner"

Dr. Mark Elbroch, Puma Program Lead Scientist and lead author, stated, “With millions of people coming through Yellowstone and Grand Teton each year, the value of living wildlife to local economies, visitor enjoyment, and even to those who may never visit these parks, cannot be emphasized enough. Bobcats are a natural resource we share in public trust with the whole country, and beyond.”
At a time when the North American model of wildlife conservation works to eliminate markets that support the exploitation of wildlife, this study underscores a movement to manage animals for the second largest economy in the state – tourism. Bobcats, however, continue to be hunted and trapped for pelts that are sent to overseas markets for use in clothing. In Wyoming, a resident bobcat license currently costs $44

Kristin Combs, Program Director for Wyoming Untrapped stated, “It is time that wildlife managers prioritize the value of wildlife for the community as a whole instead of for a single hunter or trapper.”
The authors conclude with recommendations that we enact range-wide regulatory changes across the United States, Canada and Mexico to ensure bobcat management is science-based, and that hunting/trapping limits are created and enforced that ensure bobcats are abundant enough across their range to support ecotourism and ecological stability, as well as sportsmen; in this way we increase protection for this amazing, beautiful animal, as well as ensure all people have access to shared resources held in trust. Right now, bobcat management is variable. For example, Texas currently offers zero protection to bobcats, whereas in California and New Hampshire, they are fully protected and illegal to hunt.
About Panthera
Panthera, founded in 2006, is devoted exclusively to preserving wild cats and their critical role in the world’s ecosystems. Panthera’s team of leading biologists, law enforcement experts and wild cat advocates develop innovative strategies based on the best available science to protect cheetahs, jaguars, leopards, lions, pumas, snow leopards and tigers and their vast landscapes. In 36 countries around the world, Panthera works with a wide variety of stakeholders to reduce or eliminate the most pressing threats to wild cats—securing their future, and ours.
About Wyoming Untrapped
Wyoming Untrapped is dedicated to creating a safe and humane environment for people, pets and wildlife through education, trapping regulation reform, and compassionate coexistence.
Article full text can be found at


P.O. Box 9004, Jackson, WY 83002

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