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Grizzly bears, black bears, wolves, coyotes, cougars/ mountain lions,bobcats, wolverines, lynx, foxes, fishers and martens are the suite of carnivores that originally inhabited North America after the Pleistocene extinctions. This site invites research, commentary, point/counterpoint on that suite of native animals (predator and prey) that inhabited The Americas circa 1500-at the initial point of European exploration and subsequent colonization. Landscape ecology, journal accounts of explorers and frontiersmen, genetic evaluations of museum animals, peer reviewed 20th and 21st century research on various aspects of our "Wild America" as well as subjective commentary from expert and layman alike. All of the above being revealed and discussed with the underlying goal of one day seeing our Continent rewilded.....Where big enough swaths of open space exist with connective corridors to other large forest, meadow, mountain, valley, prairie, desert and chaparral wildlands.....Thereby enabling all of our historic fauna, including man, to live in a sustainable and healthy environment. - Blogger Rick

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Monday, December 21, 2015

Penning wild animals in tight unnatural quarters seems to have always been a hallmark of us humans................In AD 100, .Native Americans occupying Teotihuacán,(the ancient city some 50 kilometers north of today's Mexico City) apparently kept Wolves and Pumas(perhaps Jaguars as well) penned up in cells................The purpose of this was to use these animals in religous sacrificial ceremonies.........

Pumas, wolves among animals in captivity

New evidence shows carnivores were kept in ancient city in first century

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New archaeological findings have shown that carnivorous animals were kept in captivity in the Americas as far back as the first century AD, 1,000 years earlier than any previous evidence had shown.Studies of the animal remains — including pumas, eagles and wolves — found during excavations at the ancient city of Teotihuacán between 1998 and 2004 have shown signs of brutal treatment by their captors.

Drawing of a puma eating human hearts

Drawing of a puma eating human hearts. NAWA SUGIYAM - See more at:

There were also indications that some animals had been fed the meat of humans.
The remains of almost 200 animals were found underneath the Moon and Sun pyramids, predating the zoos described by Spanish conquerors and missionaries.
The positions of the animals and nearby drawings showing them eating human hearts suggested they were used in sacrificial ceremonies. Now, isotope analysis, which studies the atoms in organic remains, has offered further information about what those animals might have been eating.
High levels of some nitrogen isotopes indicated that they might have been fed humans or dogs, while a carbon isotope provided evidence of having eaten maize, further implying they were kept in captivity.
There were also signs of injury, such as fractures and lesions possibly caused by having been tied up. Three eagle skeletons showed stress on the lower legs, indicated they had been tied to a perch.
Other signs showed evidence of infection which would suggest they were kept in close quarters.
Teotihuacán, famous for its Mesoamerican pyramids, is believed to have been established around 100 BC and lasted until the seventh or eighth century. It was located about 50 kilometers northeast of where Mexico City is today.
Source: (en)
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